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This is the 74. Chapter of "The Man-Made Church"

 

74. Astronomical questions and answers

by Frank L. Preuss

 

Contents

Astronomical questions and answers
01 02 03 04 05  06 07 08 09 10
11 12 13 14 15  16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25  26 27 28 29 30
31 32 33 34 35  xx
Moon phases
Moon where?
Moon when?
Moon orbit
End

 

 

 

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Astronomical questions and answers

Astronomical questions and answers
No.QuestionAnswer
^ 1 When does the waxing half-moon set? Midnight.
^ 2 When is full moon? On that day, where the earth is most precisely between moon and sun.
^ 3 When is new moon? On the day where the moon is most precisely between the earth and the sun. It is actually the day after the new moon, where there, where the moon is not covered by clouds, the new moon is seen for the first time in the month.
^ 4 When does the full moon rise? In the evening.
^ 5 On which capital does the sun shine vertically at midday on the 21st June, summer solstice on the northern hemisphere? Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh, and also on the whole Tropic of Cancer.
^ 6 When does the new moon rise? In the morning.
^ 7 A man sees the waxing half-moon. The round edge of the crescent moon is to the left and the straight edge is to the right. Where is the man? South of the equator.
^ 8 When does the waning half-moon set? Midday.
^ 9 On which capital does the sun shine vertically at midday on the 20th March and on the 22nd September, equinox? On Quito, capital of Ecuador. And also on Libreville, capital of Gabon and also on Kampala, capital of Uganda, and also on the whole Equator.
^ 10 When does the sun shine midday vertically on Sao Paulo, in Brazil, and also on the whole Tropic of Capricorn? On the 22nd December, solstice.
^ 11 A photo of the moon is to be taken, which shows the whole far side. a) When should the photo be taken? B) Where should the camera be? a) At new moon. b) Between the moon and the sun.
^ 12 When a photo of the moon is taken, which shows the whole far side, will the earth be seen on it? That depends on the distance of the camera from the moon.
^ 13 How far must a camera, which takes a photo of the whole far side of the moon, at least be away from the earth, to also have the earth partly on the photo? The distance of the moon from the earth is 400 000 km and the diameter of the moon is 27% of the diameter of the earth. The distance of the camera from the earth must then be at least 550 000 km, because 73% of this is the 400 000 km, and 27% of it is 150 000 km, the distance of the camera from the moon.
^ 14 How far must a camera be away from the earth to have the moon and the earth appear on one photo and where both celestial bodies appear of the same size on the photo and are also about fully shone upon by the sun? Also 550 000 km.
^ 15 A camera takes of photo of the earth and the moon and there both heavenly bodies are equally far away from the camera and the moon has the largest distance from the earth, 400 000 km, and the distance of the earth from the moon is 20 cm on the photo? What is the scale of the picture and what is the diameter of the two celestial bodies? The scale of the photo is then 400 000 km / 0.0002 km; that is the scale of 1 : 2 000 000 000. The earth has then a diameter of 6 mm and the moon of 1.5 mm on the photo.
The following picture is a photo of the probe Osiris Rex of earth and moon. It is a look back to earth from five million kilometre distance. On its way to the asteroid (101955) Benu the Nasa research probe Osiris Rex has sent this photo back to earth. The picture of earth and moon comes from October 2017, when Osiris Rex was about five million kilometre away from our planet. Osiris Rex is on the way since September 2016.
ziegen-aetna
^ 16 Which moon stands high up in the sky in the morning? The waning half-moon.
^ 17 When does the new moon set? In the evening.
^ 18 When is the sun and the moon seen at the same time? When the moon can be seen during daytime.
See below.
Moon phases
Moon where?
Moon when?
Moon orbit
The moon phases directly before and after new moon are those phases, where the moon is particularly seen long during the day. The reason being that then the moon is quite close to that direction, where also the sun is.
^ 19 What information is the moon giving us about the sun? The moon gives us information about where the sun is. At new moon the sun is behind the moon. At full moon the sun is behind us; we are therefore between the moon and the sun; the moon is above us and the sun is below us. At half-moon the sun is there, where the round edge of the moon points to.
^ 20 What information gives us the fact that at night the sky is black? It proves to us that light is not visible completely contrary to the claim of scientists, of so-called scientist, that light is visible.
^ 21 When is the moon not visible during the day? First at new moon. Second when the moon is beneath the earth, then the moon is not visible during the day and also not at neight.
See below.
Moon phases
Moon where?
Moon when?
Moon orbit
^ 22 What is the difference between cosmic radiation and the radiation, which originates from a lightning? There is no difference. In both cases nuclear reactions are triggered, which let radiation come into being.
^ 23 Where does the light of the sun come from? The light of the sun comes from lightning in the upper region of the corona of the sun.
^ 24 Where does the light of the sun not come from? The light of the sun does not come from nuclear reactions in the interior of the sun, which send out light and other electromagnetic radiation. That are fairy tales of the so-called scientists, which they have thought up, and which are based on no facts, but merely on assumptions.
^ 25 What is the difference between scientists and so-called scientists? Scientists have knowledge. So-called scientists are followers of man-made churches, the denomination of the materialists and of the atheists. They are followers of a man-made church. False doctrine is their symbol.
^ 26 How long does it take the sun to set? The diameter of the sun is 1 392 700 km. It is 149 600 000 km to the sun. The angle between the two edges of the sun is about half a degree, more exactly 0,53338 degrees. For 360 degrees the sun needs 24 times 60 minutes, therefore 1440 minutes. That are 4 minutes per degree. For 0.53338 degrees it then needs 2.13 minutes, therefore a little bit more than 2 minutes; 2 minutes and 8 seconds.
^ 27 How long lasts a moonset? The diameter of the moon is 3 474 km. It is 400 000 km to the moon. The angle between the two edges of the moon is about half a degree, more exact 0,4976 degrees. For 0.4976 degrees the moon needs 1.99 minutes, therefore more or less 2 minutes. But one does not need this calculation; a stopwatch can do it; a smartphone has one. It is even simpler to just count in seconds; two minutes are 120 seconds.
^ 28 What time is it when in the tropics the sun stands 45 degree above the west? Every hour the sun rotates 360o/24h = 15o/h or the earth rotates every hour 15 degrees. 45 degrees therefore corresponds to 3 hours. It is therefore 3 p.m., 3 hours after midday and 3 hours before sunset.
^ 29 Which moon stands high up in the sky in the evening? The waxing half-moon.
^ 30 At which time does the waxing half-moon set? At midnight.
^ 31 Why does the moon rise every day about 50 minutes later? The moon rotates in one "month" 360 degrees around earth. That are 12.2 degrees in one day. The earth needs 48.8 minutes to rotate these 12.2 degrees, therefore from the previous day's position of the moon to the present. The orbit time of the moon around earth is 29d 12h 44m 2.9s. That is the length of a synodic month: 29 + 0.5 + 0.030556 + 0.000034 = 29.530589d. In 29.530589 days the moon rotates 360 degrees around earth and that are then 12.2 degrees per day. The moon therefore advances every day by 12.2 degrees and the earth needs 4 minutes per degree, therefore 48.8 minutes for the 12.2 degrees. And that are about 50 minutes or a bare hour. The position of the moon is therefore every day roughly one hour later.
^ 32 How much is the angle difference between that moon, which is furthest away and the one closest? The smallest distance of the moon is 356 410 km, the largest 406 740 km. The diameter of the moon is 3 474 km. The sine or the tangent is 0.00977 for the position nearest to earth and 0.00854 for the one furthest. The angle for the nearest to earth is 0.558 degrees and for the furthest 0.489 degrees. The difference is 0.069 degrees. When I sit 1 metre away from the window, then the large moon would measure on the windowpane 9.77 mm and the small 8.54 mm. The difference would therefore be 1.23 mm or 13 %.
^ 33 Which time passes from the sending of a photo from a space probe around Pluto to the receiving on earth? Pluto is 39.75 AU away from the sun - AUs are astronomical units. And that are 5 946 million km. We are 1.00 AU away from the sun. We are therefore relatively close to the sun and since we can be on the same side of the sun as Pluto or also on the opposite side, we take as distance the one from the sun. Electromagnetic waves have a speed of 300 000 km/s.
5 946 000 000 km / 300 000 km/s = 19 853 s = 331 m = 5.5 h
Therefore more than 5 hours pass.
^ 34 By how many degrees does the sun change its position in the sky every hour? 360o/24h = 15o/h.
^ 35 By how many degrees does the moon change its position in the sky every hour? 360o/24h = 15o/h by the rotation of the earth around itself.
12.2o/24h = 0.5o/h by the rotation of the moon around the earth.
15.0o/h - 0.5o/h = 14.5o/h.
^ xx It could be that this list is continued.

 

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Moon phases

Now follows information about moon phases

 

Mondphasen

The crescent moons are so presented in the above picture, as they are seen from the northern hemisphere.

 

A moon orbit lasts about 29.5 days and between the 4 moon phases are about 6 to 9 days each.

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Moon where?

When is the moon where?
Moon phases Moon orbit
Rising in the eastUp in the sky, above earthSetting in the westDown, underneath earth
1/12New moonmorningmiddayeveningmidnight
2/12waxing moonin the morningin the afternoonbefore midnightafter midnight
3/12waxing moonin the morningin the afternoonbefore midnightafter midnight
4/12First quarter, waxing half-moonmiddayeveningmidnightmorning
5/12waxing moonin the afternoonbefore midnightafter midnightin the morning
6/12waxing moonin the afternoonbefore midnightafter midnightin the morning
7/12Full mooneveningmidnightmorningmidday
8/12waning moonbefore midnightafter midnightin the morningin the afternoon
9/12waning moonbefore midnightafter midnightin the morningin the afternoon
10/12Last quarter, waning half-moonmidnightmorningmiddayevening
11/12waning moonafter midnightin the morningin the afternoonbefore midnight
12/12waning moonafter midnightin the morningin the afternoonbefore midnight
1/12New moonmorningmiddayeveningmidnight

Moon not visible Moon visible during daytime Moon visible during twilight Moon visible during night

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Moon when?

Where is the moon when?
Moon phases Times of day
morningin the morningin the morningmiddayin the after-noonin the after-nooneveningbefore mid-nightbefore mid-nightmid-nightafter mid-nightafter mid-nightmorning
1/12New mooneastabovewestbeloweast
2/12waxing mooneastabovewestbelow
3/12waxing mooneastabovewestbelow
4/12First quarter, waxing half-moonbelow eastabovewestbelow
5/12waxing moonbeloweastabovewest
6/12waxing moonbeloweastabovewest
7/12Full moonwestbeloweastabovewest
8/12waning moonwestbeloweastabove
9/12waning moonwestbeloweastabove
10/12Last quarter, waning half-moonabovewestbeloweastabove
11/12waning moonabovewestbeloweast
12/12waning moonabovewestbeloweast
1/12New mooneastabovewestbeloweast

 

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The moon orbit

The moon moves at an average distance of 384 400 km on a elliptical orbit with an eccentricity of 0,0549 around earth. In the nearest point to earth (perigee) the distance is in the extreme case 356 410 km, in the point furthest from earth (apogee) 406 740 km.

The synodic month is the period of time between two moon phases of the same kind (for example from new moon to new moon) and lasts 29d 12h 44m 2.9s.

The moon phases take place as follows: At new moon the earth satellite is invisible. Its dark night side is turned to earth. About 2-3 days after that a waxing crescent emerges in the evening in the W. Rising and setting of the moon is late per day by about in average of 50 minutes. About 7 days after new moon is the first quarter (waxing half-moon), which on average stands in the S at sunset and sets at midnight. 14-15 days after new moon is full moon, which is visible the whole night. With a moon age of 22 days the last quarter (waning half-moon) follows, which rises on average about midnight and stands at sunrise in the S. Finally the waning crescent stands in the eastern morning twilight 2 to 3 days before new moon. Then the moon remains invisible for 4-5 days.

 

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This is the end of "Astronomical questions and answers"
Go to the German version of this chapter: Astronomische Fragen und Antworten

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