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This is the 74. Chapter of "The Man-Made Church"

 

74. Astronomical questions and answers

by Frank L. Preuss

 

Contents

Astronomical questions and answers

01 02 03 04 05  06 07 08 09 10
11 12 13 14 15  16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25  26 27 28 29 30
31 32 33 34 35  36 37 38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45  46 47 48 49 50

51 52 53 54 55  56 57 58 59 60
61
xx

Moon phases
Moon where?
Moon when?
Moon orbit
Times and places
End

 

 

 

^

Astronomical questions and answers

Astronomical questions and answers
No.QuestionAnswer
^ 1 When does the waxing half-moon set? Midnight.
^ 2 When is full moon? On that day, where the earth is most precisely between moon and sun.
^ 3 When is new moon? On the day where the moon is most precisely between the earth and the sun. It is actually the day after the new moon, where there, where the moon is not covered by clouds, the new moon is seen for the first time in the month.
^ 4 When does the full moon rise? In the evening.
^ 5 On which capital does the sun shine vertically at midday on the 21st June, summer solstice on the northern hemisphere? Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh, and also on the whole Tropic of Cancer.
^ 6 When does the new moon rise? In the morning.
^ 7 A man sees the waxing half-moon. The round edge of the crescent moon is to the left and the straight edge is to the right. Where is the man? South of the equator.
^ 8 When does the waning half-moon set? Midday.
^ 9 On which capital does the sun shine vertically at midday on the 20th March and on the 22nd September, equinox? On Quito, capital of Ecuador. And also on Libreville, capital of Gabon and also on Kampala, capital of Uganda, and also on the whole Equator.
^ 10 When does the sun shine midday vertically on Sao Paulo, in Brazil, and also on the whole Tropic of Capricorn? On the 22nd December, solstice.
^ 11 A photo of the moon is to be taken, which shows the whole far side. a) When should the photo be taken? b) Where should the camera be? a) At new moon. b) Between the moon and the sun.
^ 12 When a photo of the moon is taken, which shows the whole far side, will the earth be seen on it? That depends on the distance of the camera from the moon.
^ 13 How far must a camera, which takes a photo of the whole far side of the moon, at least be away from the earth, to also have the earth partly on the photo? The distance of the moon from the earth is 400 000 km and the diameter of the moon is 27% of the diameter of the earth. The distance of the camera from the earth must then be at least 550 000 km, because 73% of this is the 400 000 km, and 27% of it is 150 000 km, the distance of the camera from the moon.
^ 14 How far must a camera be away from the earth to have the moon and the earth appear on one photo and where both celestial bodies appear of the same size on the photo and are also about fully shone upon by the sun? Also 550 000 km.
^ 15 A camera takes of photo of the earth and the moon and there both heavenly bodies are equally far away from the camera and the moon has the largest distance from the earth, 400 000 km, and the distance of the earth from the moon is 20 cm on the photo? What is the scale of the picture and what is the diameter of the two celestial bodies? The scale of the photo is then 400 000 km / 0.0002 km; that is the scale of 1 : 2 000 000 000. The earth has then a diameter of 6 mm and the moon of 1.5 mm on the photo.
The following picture is a photo of the probe Osiris Rex of earth and moon. It is a look back to earth from five million kilometre distance. On its way to the asteroid (101955) Benu the Nasa research probe Osiris Rex has sent this photo back to earth. The picture of earth and moon comes from October 2017, when Osiris Rex was about five million kilometre away from our planet. Osiris Rex is on the way since September 2016.
ziegen-aetna
^ 16 Which moon stands high up in the sky in the morning? The waning half-moon.
^ 17 When does the new moon set? In the evening.
^ 18 When is the sun and the moon seen at the same time? When the moon can be seen during daytime.
See below.
Moon phases
Moon where?
Moon when?
Moon orbit
The moon phases directly before and after new moon are those phases, where the moon is particularly seen long during the day. The reason being that then the moon is quite close to that direction, where also the sun is.
^ 19 What information is the moon giving us about the sun? The moon gives us information about where the sun is. At new moon the sun is behind the moon. At full moon the sun is behind us; we are therefore between the moon and the sun; the moon is above us and the sun is below us. At half-moon the sun is there, where the round edge of the moon points to.
In the direction, where the new moon is, is also the sun. In the direction, where the full moon is, is also the sun, only behind man. But between new moon and full moon the crescent moon indicates the direction, where the sun is.
^ 20 What information gives us the fact that at night the sky is black? It proves to us that light is not visible – completely contrary to the claim of scientists, of so-called scientist, that light is visible.
^ 21 When is the moon not visible during the day? First at new moon. Second when the moon is beneath the earth, then the moon is not visible during the day and also not at neight.
See below.
Moon phases
Moon where?
Moon when?
Moon orbit
^ 22 What is the difference between cosmic radiation and the radiation, which originates from a lightning? There is no difference. In both cases nuclear reactions are triggered, which let radiation come into being.
^ 23 Where does the light of the sun come from? The light of the sun comes from lightning in the upper region of the corona of the sun.
^ 24 Where does the light of the sun not come from? The light of the sun does not come from nuclear reactions in the interior of the sun, which send out light and other electromagnetic radiation. That are fairy tales of the so-called scientists, which they have thought up, and which are based on no facts, but merely on assumptions.
^ 25 What is the difference between scientists and so-called scientists? Scientists have knowledge. So-called scientists are followers of man-made churches, the denomination of the materialists and of the atheists. They are followers of a man-made church. False doctrine is their symbol.
^ 26 How long does it take the sun to set? The diameter of the sun is 1 392 700 km. It is 149 600 000 km to the sun. The angle between the two edges of the sun is about half a degree, more exactly 0,53338 degrees. For 360 degrees the sun needs 24 times 60 minutes, therefore 1440 minutes. That are 4 minutes per degree. For 0.53338 degrees it then needs 2.13 minutes, therefore a little bit more than 2 minutes; 2 minutes and 8 seconds.
^ 27 How long lasts a moonset? The diameter of the moon is 3 474 km. It is 400 000 km to the moon. The angle between the two edges of the moon is about half a degree, more exact 0,4976 degrees. For 0.4976 degrees the moon needs 1.99 minutes, therefore more or less 2 minutes. But one does not need this calculation; a stopwatch can do it; a smartphone has one. It is even simpler to just count in seconds; two minutes are 120 seconds.
^ 28 What time is it when in the tropics the sun stands 45 degree above the west? Every hour the sun rotates 360o/24h = 15o/h or the earth rotates every hour 15 degrees. 45 degrees therefore corresponds to 3 hours. It is therefore 3 p.m., 3 hours after midday and 3 hours before sunset.
^ 29 Which moon stands high up in the sky in the evening? The waxing half-moon.
^ 30 At which time does the waxing half-moon set? At midnight.
^ 31 Why does the moon rise every day about 50 minutes later? The moon rotates in one "month" 360 degrees around earth. That are 12.2 degrees in one day. The earth needs 48.8 minutes to rotate these 12.2 degrees, therefore from the previous day's position of the moon to the present. The orbit time of the moon around earth is 29d 12h 44m 2.9s. That is the length of a synodic month: 29 + 0.5 + 0.030556 + 0.000034 = 29.530589d. In 29.530589 days the moon rotates 360 degrees around earth and that are then 12.2 degrees per day. The moon therefore advances every day by 12.2 degrees and the earth needs 4 minutes per degree, therefore 48.8 minutes for the 12.2 degrees. And that are about 50 minutes or a bare hour. The position of the moon is therefore every day roughly one hour later.
^ 32 How much is the angle difference between that moon, which is furthest away and the one closest? The smallest distance of the moon is 356 410 km, the largest 406 740 km. The diameter of the moon is 3 474 km. The sine or the tangent is 0.00977 for the position nearest to earth and 0.00854 for the one furthest. The angle for the nearest to earth is 0.558 degrees and for the furthest 0.489 degrees. The difference is 0.069 degrees. When I sit 1 metre away from the window, then the large moon would measure on the windowpane 9.77 mm and the small 8.54 mm. The difference would therefore be 1.23 mm or 13 %.
^ 33 Which time passes from the sending of a photo from a space probe around Pluto to the receiving on earth? Pluto is 39.75 AU away from the sun - AUs are astronomical units. And that are 5 946 million km. We are 1.00 AU away from the sun. We are therefore relatively close to the sun and since we can be on the same side of the sun as Pluto or also on the opposite side, we take as distance the one from the sun. Electromagnetic waves have a speed of 300 000 km/s.
5 946 000 000 km / 300 000 km/s = 19 853 s = 331 m = 5.5 h
Therefore more than 5 hours pass.
^ 34 By how many degrees does the sun change its position in the sky every hour? 360o/24h = 15o/h.
^ 35 By how many degrees does the moon change its position in the sky every hour? 360o/24h = 15o/h by the rotation of the earth around itself.
12.2o/24h = 0.5o/h by the rotation of the moon around the earth.
15.0o/h - 0.5o/h = 14.5o/h.
^ 36 What time is it in the tropics, when the the waning half-moon stands halfway up in the sky in the west: 45o? 9 a.m.
^ 37 What causes that the earth rotates around itself? "The earth rotations are therefore driven out from the inside, but regulated through counter powers, until excessive influence from the inside results in earth tremors and eruptions, so that the laws of nature remain so long irrefutable, until I myself dissolve them through my will, when the end of the earth has come." See B.D. Nr. 4998.
^ 38 How long does it take a signal from my computer to the server on the moon, to retrieve a webage from there? 400 000 km /
300 000 km/s
= 1.3 seconds.
^ 39 What will be the final achievement of what ranks itself among scientists? See B.D. NR. 5029 "Not just isolated stretches can be affected by it but eruptions have to take place in the interior of the earth that have an effect in all directions so that the whole face of the earth will be touched by it that therefore nothing will continue to exist that was before but will be dissolved down to the last detail. And men themselves give rise to this - they go so far into a scientific field that exceeds their mental ability. They do not know the laws of nature and their effects in order to be able to do research on such a field and therefore trigger off forces that they are not anymore able to banish themselves." See B.D. Nr. 3950.
^ 40 When so about 3 days after the theoretical new moon the real new moon is visible in the sky and the sun is setting, the sun is therefore in the west, at the horizon, where should one there look out for the crescent moon? In the west, so about 45o above the horizon.
^ 41 When the crescent of the new moon points in the direction where the sun is, why is then only a small part of the moon and not half of the moon sunlit? Because the sun is much further away than the moon. The moon is practically before our doorstep, but the sun is very far behind the moon.
^ 42 Why are the days of creation at the beginning of the Bible no 24 hour days? Because the Hebrew word for day in Genesis chapter 1 is the word "yowm" and that word yowm is also used in Genesis 47:8-9 and also there it is translated as the word "day". And the meanig of the Hebrew word yown is: a space of time defined by an associated term. The example there are Jacob and Pharao. They speak of the days of the years of a life, when they talk about the age of a person. See Note No. 6 of the webpage
Bar chart of the lives of Isreal's patriarchs and the webpage
Creationism and carnality.
And then also see
Concordance - Part 2: Day.
^ 43 What is the speed of Quito, capital of Ecuador, with which it rotates around the earth' axis? 40 000 km / 24 h = 1 667 km/h. That is faster than the speed of sound, 1 229 km/h.
^ 44 What have the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn and the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle in common? Both tropics are 23.5o away from the equatore and both polar circles are 23.5o away from the poles.
^ 45 How long is the Arctic Circle? The Arctic Circle is at 66.5o North or 23.5o from the North Pole and the radius of the earth is 6 378 km and the tan of 23.5o is 0.4348. The radius of the Arctic Circle is then 6 378 km x 0.4348 = 2 773 km. The length of the Arctic Circle is then 2 773 x 2 x 3.14 = 17 415 km.
^ 46 What is the speed of an aeroplane that flies over the Arctic Circle with the same speed as the Arctic Circle rotates once around itself? 17 415 km / 24 h = 726 km/h.
^ 47 How far away from the North Pole should a man be, who walks at a speed of 4 km/h and wants to walk as fast as the earth rotates around its axis, therefore wants to walk around the earth in one day? 4 km/h x 24 h/d = 96 km/d.
Radius = 96 / (2 x 3.14) = 15 km
^ 48 When are the rays of the sun tangent to earth at the Antarctic Circle? On the 21st of June.
^ 49 When are the rays of the sun tangent to earth at the equator? Every day.
^ 50 When are the rays of the sun tangent to earth at the poles? On the 20th of March and on the 23th of September.
^ 51 When are the rays of the sun tangent to earth at the Antarctic Circle? On the 22nd of December.
^ 52 How can it be that the rays of the sun are tangent to earth at the Antarctic Circle on the 21st of June and also on the 22nd of December? On the 21st of June the rays of the sun are tangent to earth at the near side of the Antarctic Circle and on the 22nd of December at the far side.
On the 21st of June there is no sunshine between the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole. On the 22nd of December there is sunshine in that area the whole day long.
^ 53 When this thing with degrees west longitude and degrees east longitude was introduced, the whole thing was determined by the English. Or the Englishman asserted himself. The French also tried it, to determine Paris as zero, but were then not so successful. What would have been an easier system? The English wanted to see themselves as the centre of the world, there were west and east meets. It would have been easier, when they would have seen themselves as beginning and end, as alpha and omega. Then London would also have zero degrees, but also 360 degrees, but then the division in west and east would have fallen away.
^ 54 Wich location lies on 180o east and also on 180o west? Fiji.
^ 55 For the man on the Fiji Islands, what is for him in the west and what is for him in the east? For him the east, the far east, is west of him, and for him the west, the far west, is east of him. Very assuring!
^ 56 Since the Americans are now more in the driving seat, they could determine Washington as zero and as 360. What advantage would that have? Incredible many school books would have to get printed anew. That would bring a great impetus to that part of industry.
^ 57 In winter a man sees the sun rise in the east. Then he observes, how the sun finds its way in an arch to the right upward, reaches its zenith at midday and then further in an bow to the right and downwards and then sets in the west. Where is the man? On the northern hemisphere.
^ 58 How could on set out the north direction on a piece of land in a simple way? One determines the geographic longitude of the piece of land. Is this for example 116o E, for example in Perth in Australia, and the sun shines at 12 o'clock midday from north on 120o E, time zone 8, then the sun shines 4o after that in Perth directly from north. In 60 minutes the sun moves 15o and for one degree it needs 4 minutes and 16 minutes for 4 degrees. A survey rod has been placed vertically into the ground and at 16 minutes after 12 o'clock midday a second survey rod is placed into the shadow of the first and with the two rods one has the north direction.
^ 59 A man stands on the South Pol.
1. Where is north?
2. Where is the North Pole?
3. In what direction is London?
4. In what direction is New Orleans?
5. If the man wants to turn around in the opposite direction, without moving, what must he do?
1. Everyhwere.
2. Down below.
3. In the direction of the Prime Meridian.
4. Perpendicular to the direction of the Prime Meridian.
5. Just stand still for 12 hours.
^ 60 A man stands on the equator and looks in the the direction west.
1. What must he do to look in the opposite direction, without moving?
2. In what direction does he then look?
1. Just stand still for 12 hours.
2. Also in the direction west.
^ 61 Johannesburg is in the subtropics. In summer it can get quite hot there. In winter it can get quite cold, particularly also because it is high up, more than 1½ km above seelevel. Towards which direction should the windows of a building be directed, so that in summer practically no sun shines into the rooms, but in winter very much? To the north.
^ 
^ xx It could be that this list is continued.

 

^

Moon phases

Now follows information about moon phases

 

Mondphasen

The crescent moons are so presented in the above picture, as they are seen from the northern hemisphere.

When one sees the moon for the first time again after new moon, then only the right edge of the moon is illuminated and one sees therefore a relative thin crescent moon. This illuminated part of the moon then grows to the full moon and the moon is then waning, until only the left part of the moon is still visible. However, this description is only valid for the observer on the northern hemisphere. The observer on the southern hemisphere experiences something else. With him the illumination starts on the left and ends on the right.

A man stands on the equator and looks westwards. Seen from the north, his nose is on the right; seen from the south his nose is on the left.

A moon orbit lasts about 29.5 days and between the 4 moon phases are about 6 to 9 days each.

^

Moon where?

When is the moon where?
Moon phases Moon orbit
Rising in the eastUp in the sky, above earthSetting in the westDown, underneath earth
1/12New moonmorningmiddayeveningmidnight
2/12waxing moonin the morningin the afternoonbefore midnightafter midnight
3/12waxing moonin the morningin the afternoonbefore midnightafter midnight
4/12First quarter, waxing half-moonmiddayeveningmidnightmorning
5/12waxing moonin the afternoonbefore midnightafter midnightin the morning
6/12waxing moonin the afternoonbefore midnightafter midnightin the morning
7/12Full mooneveningmidnightmorningmidday
8/12waning moonbefore midnightafter midnightin the morningin the afternoon
9/12waning moonbefore midnightafter midnightin the morningin the afternoon
10/12Last quarter, waning half-moonmidnightmorningmiddayevening
11/12waning moonafter midnightin the morningin the afternoonbefore midnight
12/12waning moonafter midnightin the morningin the afternoonbefore midnight
1/12New moonmorningmiddayeveningmidnight

Moon not visible Moon visible during daytime Moon visible during twilight Moon visible during night

^

Moon when?

Where is the moon when?
Moon phases Times of day
morningin the morningin the morningmiddayin the after-noonin the after-nooneveningbefore mid-nightbefore mid-nightmid-nightafter mid-nightafter mid-nightmorning
1/12New mooneastabovewestbeloweast
2/12waxing mooneastabovewestbelow
3/12waxing mooneastabovewestbelow
4/12First quarter, waxing half-moonbelow eastabovewestbelow
5/12waxing moonbeloweastabovewest
6/12waxing moonbeloweastabovewest
7/12Full moonwestbeloweastabovewest
8/12waning moonwestbeloweastabove
9/12waning moonwestbeloweastabove
10/12Last quarter, waning half-moonabovewestbeloweastabove
11/12waning moonabovewestbeloweast
12/12waning moonabovewestbeloweast
1/12New mooneastabovewestbeloweast

 

^

The moon orbit

The moon moves at an average distance of 384 400 km on a elliptical orbit with an eccentricity of 0,0549 around earth. In the nearest point to earth (perigee) the distance is in the extreme case 356 410 km, in the point furthest from earth (apogee) 406 740 km.

The synodic month is the period of time between two moon phases of the same kind (for example from new moon to new moon) and lasts 29d 12h 44m 2.9s.

The moon phases take place as follows: At new moon the earth satellite is invisible. Its dark night side is turned to earth. About 2-3 days after that a waxing crescent emerges in the evening in the W. Rising and setting of the moon is late per day by about in average of 50 minutes. About 7 days after new moon is the first quarter (waxing half-moon), which on average stands in the S at sunset and sets at midnight. 14-15 days after new moon is full moon, which is visible the whole night. With a moon age of 22 days the last quarter (waning half-moon) follows, which rises on average about midnight and stands at sunrise in the S. Finally the waning crescent stands in the eastern morning twilight 2 to 3 days before new moon. Then the moon remains invisible for 4-5 days.

 

^

Times and places

Times and places are listed here, which allow a comparison. When it is for example midnight in Fiji, islands in the Pacific Ocean, then it is midday in London, in England, and also in Accra, in Ghana. And it is then 1 p.m. in Görlitz, in Germany, and 5 a.m. in Denver, USA.

The difference between London and Görlitz is 15o or 1 hour. The difference between London and Denver is 105o or 7 hours.

An aeroplane flying around the earth above the equator with the same speed as the sun goes round earth, would need 24 hours for the 40 000 km and that would be 1667 km/h and that would be faster than sound travels, 1229 km/h.

If a man wants to fly slower and not such a big distance, then he can fly above the Artic Circle. He could start and end his trip in Rovaniemi, in Finland, 26o East, 26 degrees of longitude, and 66o 30' North, 66.5 degrees of latitude. That are 23,5o from the North Pole and that is the same distance of the two tropics from the equator. The Arctic Circle is 17 415 km long and the man's speed would then be 726 km/h.

A meridian is that great circle passing through the poles of the celestial sphere which cuts the observer's horizon in the north and south points, and also passes through the zenith. Also meridian of longitude.

A meridian is the circle of constant longitude, passing throug given place and terrestrial poles; corresponding line on map or sky.

Times and places
Times Places
Time of the dayMeridian Examples
Degrees east longitude Degrees west longitude
o E o W
midnight0180180Egvekinot, in Russia;
Fiji, Islands in the Pacific Ocean
1165Hooper Bay, in Alaska (USA);
Hawaian Islands (USA)
2150Anchorage, in Alaska, (USA)
3135Whitehorse, in Yukon Teritory in Canada
4120 Santa Barbara, in California, USA
5105Denver, in Colorado, USA;
Tepic, in Mexico
690St. Louis, in Illinois, USA;
Memphis, in Tennessee, USA;
New Orleans, in Louisiana, USA;
Merida, in Mexico;
Sonsonate, in El Salvador
775Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania, USA;
Guantanamo, on Cuba;
Barranquilla, in Colombia;
Nazca, in Peru
860Glace Bay, in Nova Scotia, Canada;
San Nicolas, in Argentina;
Falkland Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean;
South Shetland Islands, Antarctica
945Nanortalik, on Greenland;
Divinopolis, in Brazil
1030Halley, Antarctica
1115Kuntaur, in Gambia;
Buba, in Guinea-Bissau
midday1200London, in England;
Lourdes, in France;
Castello de la Plana, in Spain;
Mascara, in Algeria;
Tema, in Ghana
1315Bornholm, to Denmark, Island in Baltic Sea;
Görliz, in Germany;
Etna, Mountain on Sicilia, Italy;
Ndjamena, in Chad;
Kinshasa, in Congo (Dem. Rep.);
Uis, in Namibia
1430Sankt-Peterburg, in Russia;
Alexandria, in Egypt;
Kigali, in Rwanda;
Beitbridge, in Zimbabwe;
Ermelo, in South Africa;
Mooi River, in South Africa
1545Tblisi, in Georgia;
Aden, in Yemen;
Berbera, in Somalia Rep.;
Mogadishu, in Somalia Rep.;
Mahabo, in Madagascar
1660Aral Sea, in Kazakhstan and in Uzbekistan;
East corner of the Arabian peninsula, of Oman;
Cargados Carajos, Islands belonging to Mauritius
1775Bishkek, in Kyrgyzstan;
Kashi, in China;
Srinagar, in Kashmir;
Mangalore, in India;
Heard Island, in the Indian Ocean, (Australia)
1890Achinsk, in Russia;
Bhutan, country in Asia;
Jamalpur, in Bangladesh
19105Irkutsk, in Russia;
Phnom Penh, in Cambodia;
Panlembang, in Indonesia, auf Sumatera
20120Eastern border of Mongolia;
Tainan, in Taiwan (Formosa);
Manila, in the Philippines;
Newman, in Australia
21135Eastern border of China;
Kobe, in Japan
22150Magadan, in Russia;
Goulburn, in Australia
23165Kamenskoye, in Russia
midnight24180180Egvekinot, in Russia;
Fiji, Islands in the Pacific Ocean
Times Places
Time of the dayMeridian Examples
Degrees east longitude Degrees west longitude
o E o W

 

^

 

This is the end of "Astronomical questions and answers"
Go to the German version of this chapter: Astronomische Fragen und Antworten

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